Angiogenesis and its inhibition are some of the most exciting areas of research in cancer prevention. However, therapeutic angiogenesis is also a promising treatment for wound healing. Although the potential therapeutics differ, for obvious reasons, the increases in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms have enabled the development of exciting new treatments. One of the best known angiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In wound healing, VEGF is upregulated when capillary growth is greatest in the early phase of wound healing1. Another role of VEGF in wound healing is through an anti-inflammatory mechanism. VEGF reduces wound inflammation by promoting macrophage apoptosis2. VEGF is the target of the blockbuster biological cancer therapeutic Bevacizumab and is down regulated by grape seed extract3. TIMP-1 is a possible inhibitor of angiogenesis4, and TIMP-2 is a well-known angiogenesis inhibitor5. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent angiogenic factor that stimulates the production of VEGF6. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is also a potent angiogenic factor and is a biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia7.
In therapeutic angiogenesis, one of the isoforms of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) has completed clinical trials8. PDGF contributes to the upregulation of chemokines such as CXCL-1 (Gro-α, or KC) CXCL-2 (Mip2-α, or Gro-β), and CXCL-59. PDGF receptors are targets of cancer therapeutics, including the small molecule Imatinib.
Cytokines have long been examined as contributors to angiogenesis. IL-810, IL-6, and IL-1 are involved in cancer, possibly through NFκB activation11. Recent research has indicated that the cytokine IL-12 is anti-angiogenic. Likely, this mechanism is due to the action of angiostatin, which requires an intact IL-12 signaling pathway.
Whether you are interested in promoting or inhibiting angiogenesis, the Quansys Angiogenesis, Cytokine, and Chemokine arrays provide you with a faster, less-expensive way to test the effects of your treatments. Please contact us concerning custom arrays that contain only the proteins in which you are interested.
VEGF, PDGF-BB, IL-8, IL-6, IL-12, FGF, HGF, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-12
Angiogenesis Markers in Q-Plex™ Kits
- Wellen KE, Hotamisligil GS: Inflammation, stress, and diabetes. J Clin Invest 2005, 115:1111-1119.
- Bao P, Kodra A, Tomic-Canic M, Golinko MS, Ehrlich HP, Brem H: The Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Wound Healing. J Surg Res 2008.
- Petreaca ML, Yao M, Ware C, Martins-Green MM: Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes macrophage apoptosis through stimulation of tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 14 (TNFSF14/LIGHT). Wound Repair Regen 2008, 16:602-614.
- Wen W, Lu J, Zhang K, Chen S: Grape seed extract inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa) 2008, 1:554-561.
- Ikenaka Y, Yoshiji H, Kuriyama S, Yoshii J, Noguchi R, Tsujinoue H, Yanase K, Namisaki T, Imazu H, Masaki T, Fukui H: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in the TIMP-1 transgenic mouse model. Int J Cancer 2003, 105:340-346.
- Seo DW, Li H, Guedez L, Wingfield PT, Diaz T, Salloum R, Wei BY, Stetler-Stevenson WG: TIMP-2 mediated inhibition of angiogenesis: an MMP-independent mechanism. Cell 2003, 114:171-180.
- Tomita N, Morishita R, Taniyama Y, Koike H, Aoki M, Shimizu H, Matsumoto K, Nakamura T, Kaneda Y, Ogihara T: Angiogenic property of hepatocyte growth factor is dependent on upregulation of essential transcription factor for angiogenesis, ets-1. Circulation 2003, 107:1411-1417.
- Aldridge BB, Burke JM, Lauffenburger DA, Sorger PK: Physicochemical modelling of cell signalling pathways. Nat Cell Biol 2006, 8:1195-1203.
- Barrientos S, Stojadinovic O, Golinko MS, Brem H, Tomic-Canic M: Growth factors and cytokines in wound healing. Wound Repair Regen 2008, 16:585-601.
- Jin Q, Wei G, Lin Z, Sugai JV, Lynch SE, Ma PX, Giannobile WV: Nanofibrous scaffolds incorporating PDGF-BB microspheres induce chemokine expression and tissue neogenesis in vivo. PLoS ONE 2008, 3:e1729.
- Waugh DJ, Wilson C: The interleukin-8 pathway in cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2008, 14:6735-6741.
- Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S, Sandur SK, Pandey MK, Sethi G: Inflammation and cancer: how hot is the link? Biochem Pharmacol 2006, 72:1605-1621.