Clinical and Experimental Immunology 163 3, 333-8.


Toossi, Z., C.S. Hirsch, et al.

Quansys Products Used:

Human Angiogenesis (9-Plex)


Pleural tuberculosis (TB) remains a common presentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection in HIV/TB dually infected subjects, and both cellular and acellular components of the pleural milieu promote HIV-1 replication; however, they remain uncharacterized. Using cytokine array of pleural fluid and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunophenotype analysis, pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC) were compared to systemic counterparts [i.e. plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)]. Significant increases in pleural fluid cytokines compared to plasma were limited to interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, interferon (IFN)-γ and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and did not include other T helper type 1 (Th1) (IL-2, IL-15), Th2 or Th17 cytokines. Patterns and levels of cytokines were indistinguishable between pleural fluid from HIV/TB and TB patients. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) mRNA in PFMC was increased significantly and correlated highly with levels of IL-6 and IL-8, less with TGF-β, and not with IFN-γ. Among CD4 T cells, FoxP3-reactive CD25(hi) were increased in HIV/TB dually infected subjects compared to their PBMC, and up to 15% of FoxP3(+) CD25(hi) CD4 T cells were positive for IL-8 by intracellular staining. These data implicate a dominant effect of MTB infection (compared to HIV-1) at pleural sites of dual HIV/TB infection on the local infectious milieu, that include IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ and TGF-β and regulatory T cells (T(reg) ). A correlation in expansion of T(reg) with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) in pleural fluid was shown. T(reg) themselves may promote the inflammatory cytokine milieu through IL-8.

As researchers and problem solvers ourselves, we understand the value of sound data. We are proud to be a part of research that can better the world. We value the relationships, partnerships, and friendships that we have built with the people who trust and use our technology. We are committed to building these relationships. You can count on us to answer the phone and take time to thoroughly address questions or concerns about any of our products. In an industry that is reputed for grandiose claims, we trust that our quality standards and our customer service set us apart from the competition. If you’re happy with our products or if you think we can do something better, we hope you will let us know.