Evaluation of antiviral therapies in respiratory and neurological disease models of Enterovirus D68 infection in mice
Volume 526, 2 January 2019, Pages 146-154
Brett L.Hurst, W. Joseph Evans, Donald F. Smee, Arnaud J.Van Wettere, E. Bart Tarbet
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Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is unique among enteroviruses because of the ability to cause severe respiratory disease as well as neurological disease. We developed separate models of respiratory and neurological disease following EV-D68 infection in AG129 mice that respond to antiviral treatment with guanidine. In four-week-old mice infected intranasally, EV-D68 replicates to high titers in lung tissue increasing the proinflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and IL-6. The respiratory infection also produces an acute viremia. In 10-day-old mice infected intraperitoneally, EV-D68 causes a neurological disease with weight-loss, paralysis, and mortality. In our respiratory model, treatment with guanidine provides a two-log reduction in lung virus titers, reduces MCP-1 and IL-6, and prevents histological lesions in the lungs. Importantly, viremia is prevented by early treatment with guanidine. In our neurological model, guanidine treatment protects mice from weight-loss, paralysis, and mortality. These results demonstrate the utility of these models for evaluation of antiviral therapies for EV-D68 infection.