Invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 with Naturally Attenuated Flagellin Elicits Reduced Inflammation and Replicates within Macrophages
PLOS 2015, doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003394
Girish Ramachandran, Darren J. Perkins, Patrick J. Schmidlein, et al.
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Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) are an important cause of septicemia in children under the age of five years in sub-Saharan Africa. A novel genotype of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (multi-locus sequence type [ST] 313) circulating in this geographic region is genetically different to from S. Typhimurium ST19 strains that are common throughout the rest of the world. S. Typhimurium ST313 strains have acquired pseudogenes and genetic deletions and appear to be evolving to become more like the typhoidal serovars S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. Epidemiological and clinical data show that S. Typhimurium ST313 strains are clinically associated with invasive systemic disease (bacteremia, septicemia, meningitis) rather than with gastroenteritis. The current work summarizes investigations of the broad hypothesis that S. Typhimurium ST313 isolates from Mali, West Africa, will behave differently from ST19 isolates in various in vitro assays. Here, we show that strains of the ST313 genotype are phagocytosed more efficiently and are highly resistant to killing by macrophage cell lines and primary mouse and human macrophages compared to ST19 strains. S. Typhimurium ST313 strains survived and replicated within different macrophages. Infection of macrophages with S. Typhimurium ST19 strains resulted in increased apoptosis and higher production of proinflammatory cytokines, as measured by gene expression and protein production, compared to S. Typhimurium ST313 strains. This difference in proinflammatory cytokine production and cell death between S. Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 strains could be explained, in part, by an increased production of flagellin by ST19 strains. These observations provide further evidence that S. Typhimurium ST313 strains are phenotypically different to ST19 strains and instead share similar pathogenic characteristics with typhoidal Salmonellaserovars.