Mouse Cytokine-Inflammation (14-Plex)
Q-Plex™ Product Overview
The Q-Plex™ Mouse Cytokine – Inflammation (14-plex) is a fully quantitative ELISA-based chemiluminescent assay allowing the concurrent measurement of 14 biomarkers or analytes. Using just 25 µl of sample per well, up to 80 samples can be assayed for all 14 markers in the panel within 2.25 hours. The Q-Plex™ Mouse Cytokine – Inflammation (14-plex) provides researchers an easy to use and cost-effective means of generating a cytokine profile for each sample. Q-Plex plates are built by adsorbing 14 distinct capture antibodies in a defined array to the bottom of each well. Our high-quality reagents help ensure the accuracy of your results.
Q-Plex™ Mouse Cytokine – Inflammation (14-plex)
For measurement of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17, MCP-1,TNFα, MIP-1α, GMCSF, RANTES
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM‑CSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a growth factor that promotes the formation of white blood cells and is a critical component of the immune/inflammatory cascade. The growth factor is commonly used for in vitro colony formation of white blood cells. Numerous cell types produce GM-CSF in response to inflammation, particularly in the immune system, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and adipocytes. In hematopoietic cells, GM-CSF activates the functions of monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and granulocytes. In clinical settings, GM-CSF is capable of raising white blood cell counts in chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant patients and is being investigated as a potential cancer vaccination due to its ability to transfer targeted genetic material into tumor cells. Since GM-CSF initiates the development of an immune response, it is implicated in autoimmunity disorders and allergic inflammation. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis often have high levels of GM-CSF in their joints.
Interleuken 1 alpha (IL-1α), also known as hematopoietin 1, is a cytokine that plays a role in inflammation, fever, and sepsis. It is produced by macrophages, neutrophils, and endothelial and epithelial cells. In the skin, IL-1α is regularly produced at high levels and helps maintain skin barrier function against pathogens as well as overall skin condition. As part of the immune response, its production is by microbial exposure. It is responsible for releasing inflammatory mediators and acute phase proteins. The severity of inflammation, fever, and sepsis are associated with circulating IL-1α levels. IL-1α inhibitors are a potential target for therapeutics to treat and prevent these conditions as well as mediate skin conditions such as acne. Additionally, IL-1a is part of the pathway that activates tumor necrosis factor-alpha and helps kill some kinds of cancer cells. It also supports stem cell expansion and osteoclast formation following bone marrow transplant.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), also known as scatter factor (SF), is a paracrine factor involved in cellular growth, motility, and morphogenesis. It plays an important role in embryonic development, wound healing, and adult organ maintenance, particularly for muscle cells. HGF causes epithelial cells, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, melanocytes, and chondrocytes to proliferate and migrate during tissue formation. During early organ formation, it promotes morphogenesis by inducing cell scattering and regulating organization into structures. In adults, HGF is secreted at sites of tissue damage. High levels of serum HGF is present in conditions such as liver damage, acute kidney failure, type 1 diabetes, obesity, cancer, and myocardial infarction. High levels of HGF is are often present in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. HGF is currently being explored as a potential therapeutic for tissue repair in cardiac disease patients.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system that mediates the activity of white blood cells, particularly lymphocytes, during an immune response. IL-2 promotes the differentiation of T cells into memory T cells after exposure to a novel pathogen, making it a critical component of the active immune system and long-term immunity to disease. In the thymus, IL-2 supports the formation of regulatory T cells, which work to prevent autoimmune diseases by eliminating overactive immune cells. Since IL-2 helps increase immune cell production and regulate large scale activities of the immune system, it is commonly used as a cancer treatment for patients with certain kinds of cancers, including kidney and skin cancers.
Interleukin 3 (IL-3) is a cytokine that promotes immune responses. It is produced by basophils and activated T cells to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells as well as lineage committed progenitor cells. Due its numerous functions and targets, it has been studied under different names, including mast cell growth factor, P-cell stimulating factor, burst promoting activity, multi-colony stimulating factor, thy-1 inducing factor and WEHI-3 growth factor. The behavior of many immunological cells is impacted by IL-3 activity, including mast cells, basophils, eosinphils, and macrophages. Receptors for IL-3 are present on bone marrow progenitors, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils, megakaryocytes, basophils and various myeloid leukemic cells and the cytokine influences many cell activities, including growth and apoptosis. IL-3 has neurotropic effects and may be involved in some neurological disorders.
Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a cytokine that has pleiotropic effects during active immune responses. Its primary role is to induce differentiation of helper T-cells and active B cells. IL-4’s other roles include regulating immunity, upregulating MHC class II production, supporting the proliferation of epithelial cells, and downregulating the production of Th1 cells, macrophages, and some lines of dendritic cells. IL-4 activates two different receptor complexes, one expressed on hematopoietic cells and another found on nonhematopoietic cells. IL-4 is primarily expressed by Th2-biased CD4+ T cells, mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils. Its responsibilities include cell proliferation, immunoglobulin class switch (IgG4, IgE of human B cells), survival, priming and chemotaxis of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils. Dysregulation of IL-4 is implicated in many autoimmune disorders, particularly the development of allergies. Overexpression of the cytokine is associated with tumor growth in many kinds of cancer. People infected with HIV often produce higher levels of IL-4. Human, mouse, and rat IL-4 are species-specific in their activities.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a class-2 anti-inflammatory cytokine, also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF). It impacts many areas of immunoregulation and inflammation, with numerous pleiotropic effects in the immune system. As an anti-inflammatory, it downregulates MHC class II expression, inhibits the synthesis and activity of many inflammatory cytokines, and reduces co-stimulatory factors on macrophages. It also enhances the release of other anti-inflammatory mediators by monocytes and macrophage, particularly during exercise. It enhances B cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and antibody production. IL-10 has anti-tumor effects, reducing tumor growth and decreasing metastatic burden in the body. IL-10 deficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-10 is currently under investigation as a potential therapeutic for many conditions, including cancer treatments and reducing symptoms in inflammatory disorders.
Interleukin 12 p70 (IL-12p70) is a subunit of interleukin 12 (IL-12) a cytokine that has a broad range of biological activities in the immune system. The complete IL-12 unit aids in the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1 cells and regulates the activity of natural killer cells. It also stimulates the production of T cells, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. IL-12 inhibits the formation of new blood vessels and may play a role in autoimmune disorders.
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) are a small family of similarly structured cytokines that plays a role in pro-inflammatory responses of the immune system, particularly allergic reactions. Each variant of IL-17 appears to have slightly nuanced function in different organs, but on the whole the cytokines behave similarly. IL-17 induces inflammation by stimulating the secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules such as IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, IL-1, TNF-α, and MCP-1 from their respective cell types. For this reason, IL-17 is linked to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, lupus, psoriasis, and multiple scelrosis. Overactivity of IL-17 is commonly found in severe cases of asthma and psoriasis, where it contributes to inflammation that damages the airway and skin, respectively. IL-17 suppression is under investigation as a clinical target for reducing symptoms of inflammatory diseases, improving recovery following stroke, and treatment of some types of cancer.
Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), also known as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and small inducible cytokine (A2MCP-1), is a chemokine that plays a role in the body’s response to tissue injury and infection. It is produced by many cell types in response to tissue damage, and is a chemoattractant to monocytes, basophils, memory T cells, and dendritic cells. MCP-1 is commonly found at the site of tooth and bone injuries or infections, where it is expressed by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. It is also produced by cells of the nervous system and is implicated in many inflammatory neurological disorders. Elevated MCP-1 levels are often associated with sepsis, Crohn’s disease, lupus nephritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pancreatitis, and atherosclerosis. MCP-1 is also upregulated in several cancers including gastric carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, malignant glioma, and ovarian, pancreatic, bladder, and breast cancers.
Macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1α), also known as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), is a cytokine of the immune system involved in inflammation and fever. MIP-1α and its counterpart MIP-1β are produced primarily by macrophages following exposure to a bacterial endotoxin but can also be secreted by other immune cells. It works to activate granulocyte white blood cells and stimulate the production of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. Its presence also limits the production of hematopoietic stem cells. MIP-1α has the ability to induce a rapid onset fever in response to an infection. MIP-1α is capable of suppressing HIV infection since it binds to CCR5, a common HIV coreceptor. MIP-1α is implicated in many diseases, including multiple myeloma, cystic fibrosis, and breast cancer.
Regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), also known as Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) is a cytokine that mediates inflammatory response of the immune system. It is chemotactic to T lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils. RANTES activates and increases the cytotoxicity and proliferation of natural killer cells. It is secreted by fibroblasts, platelets, and T cells at the site of inflammation. RANTES is also involved in the progression and metastasis of some malignant tumors where it may promote migration of cancer cells. Its expression is upregulated in the white adipose tissue of obese individuals and may be involved in obesity related inflammation. RANTES is strongly HIV suppressive, preventing replication of certain HIV strains and is currently under investigation as a therapeutic for the virus.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a versatile cytokine that plays a central role in inflammation, immune system development, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. TNFα is an important endogenous pyrogen, its release quickly induces fever. It also causes apoptotic cell death, cachexia, inflammation, and has the ability to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication. It is chemoattractive to many immune cells, particularly neutrophils. Cell surface TNFα can induce the lysis of neighboring tumor cells and virus infected cells and has the ability to generate its own downstream cell signaling. It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it is produced in low levels by a wide variety of immune, epithelial, endothelial, and tumor cells such as CD4+ lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. TNFα also plays an important role in metabolism, with the ability to induce insulin resistance and regulate appetite through interactions with the hypothalamus. Dysregulation of TNF production has been implicated in a variety of human diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, cancer, and psoriasis.
Each kit contains a 96-well plate, featuring the relevant biomarker panel in each well, and all reagents required to perform testing.
- Detection Mix
- Sample Diluents
- Streptavidin HRP
- Wash Buffer
All Quansys Q-Plex™ Multiplex and Singleplex assays require the use of the Q-View™ software to read and interpret the test results. A fully-functional, free trial version of the software is available to download, install, and use to analyze your first kit(s). At the end of the trial period, a purchased license is required to continue the use of the Q-View software.
Q-Plex arrays are developed and optimized to work with Q-View imagers. Quansys does not guarantee the results obtained from other imagers and not all imagers are compatible with Quansys Q-Plex arrays.