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Dietary protein source matters for changes in inflammation measured by urinary C-reactive protein in rural polish women


Wiley Online Library | March 8th, 2022



Hayley E. Ban, Katharine M. N. Lee, Mary P. Rogers-LaVanne, Katarzyna Zablocka-Slowinska, Andrzej Galbarczyk, Grazyna Jasienska, Kathryn B. N. Clancy



Multiple macronutrients have been shown to affect systemic inflammation, a well-known predictor of chronic disease. Less often, varying sources of these macronutrients are examined. Different subsistence environments lead to varying access to protein sources which, combined with physical activity patterns, may lead to different relationships than among more typically studied sedentary, industrialized populations. This study hypothesizes an association between dietary protein intake and urinary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration in women from a rural, agrarian Polish community.

Materials and Methods

We assessed protein intake and their sources for 80 nonsmoking, premenopausal Polish women who were not pregnant, nursing, or on hormonal birth control during the study or within the previous 6 months. Each participant completed multiple 24-hr dietary recalls during one menstrual cycle. Participants collected morning void urinary samples daily over one menstrual cycle for urinary CRP analysis. We analyzed relationships between plant and animal protein intake and CRP over the menstrual cycle by multiple linear regression.


Plant protein in cereal foods was significantly positively associated with cycle-average urinary CRP concentrations (p < 0.05) after controlling for body fat percent, total energy intake, and dietary fiber. Foods containing animal protein were not significantly associated with CRP.


Contents of this population’s main plant and animal protein sources differ from those of more commonly studied industrialized populations. Within the context of a population’s typical diet, more emphasis may need to be placed on particular source of protein consumed, beyond plant versus animal, in order to understand relationships with CRP.

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