Q-Plex™ Human Angiogenesis (9-Plex)
Q-Plex™ Product Overview
The Q-Plex Human Angiogenesis (9-Plex) is a fully quantitative ELISA-based chemiluminescent assay allowing the concurrent measurement of nine biomarkers or analytes. Using only 25 µl of sample per well, up to 80 samples can be assayed for all nine markers in the panel within 2.25 hours. The Q-Plex Human Angiogenesis (9-Plex) provides researchers an easy to use and cost effective means of generating a cytokine profile for each sample. Q-Plex™ plates are built by adsorbing nine distinct capture antibodies in a defined array to the bottom of each well. Our high quality reagents help ensure the accuracy of your results.
Q-Plex Human Angiogenesis (9-Plex)
For measurement of ANG-2, FGF basic, HGF, IL-8, PDGF-BB, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TNFα, VEGF
Angiopoietin2 (Ang-2) is a glycoprotein that is involved in the growth of new blood vessels and inflammation. Ang-2 is expressed heavily during early development, but in healthy adults is typically only expressed in the uterus and ovaries of females and during wound healing and inflammatory responses. During pregnancy Irregular levels of Ang-2 in the mother are associated with cases of pre-eclampsia, ectopic implantation, and Down Syndrome. For this reason, Ang-2 is often measured to predict at-risk-pregnancy. Ang-2 is implicated in cancer, during which the protein restricts blood vessels in expanding tumors, causing the regression and loss of vessels at the center of a tumor. Patients with a fever that are also expressing high levels of Ang-2 are at greater risk for the development of septic shock.
Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-β, FGF-2) is a growth factor involved in the early development and maintenance of populations of embryonic and adult stem cells. During embryonic development it is critical for the pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, functioning to promote stem cell division and limit cellular differentiation. In adults is found in the basement membranes and extracellular matrix of blood vessels in many tissues, including neural, pituitary, adrenal cortex, corpus luteum, and placental tissues where it modulates wound healing, tissue repair, and neuronal function or degeneration. It has been demonstrated to be protective to heart tissue during a heart attack. Low levels of FGF-β are associated with anxiety disorders. FGF-β is upregulated in response to tumors and inflammation stimuli and is implicated in tumor growth.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), also known as scatter factor (SF), is a paracrine factor involved in cellular growth, motility, and morphogenesis. It plays an important role in embryonic development, wound healing, and adult organ maintenance, particularly for muscle cells. HGF causes epithelial cells, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, melanocytes, and chondrocytes to proliferate and migrate during tissue formation. During early organ formation, it promotes morphogenesis by inducing cell scattering and regulating organization into structures. In adults, HGF is secreted at sites of tissue damage. High levels of serum HGF is present in conditions such as liver damage, acute kidney failure, type 1 diabetes, obesity, cancer, and myocardial infarction. High levels of HGF is are often present in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. HGF is currently being explored as a potential therapeutic for tissue repair in cardiac disease patients.
Interleukin 8 (IL-8), also known as CXCL8, is a chemokine that plays a role in the recruitment and regulation of white blood cells during an innate immune response. It is a strong chemoattractant for neutrophils and other granulocytes, bringing them to the site of infection and then stimulating them to engage in phagocytosis. It is commonly secreted by macrophages that have identified a foreign pathogen but may be emitted by any cell with toll-like receptors. IL-8 plays a key role in metastasis; it was first identified as a leukocyte chemoattractant that progresses melanoma by directly inducing angiogenesis and migration of melanoma cells. Serum IL-8 levels are directly correlated with the degree of metastatic melanoma and overall tumor count. High levels of IL-8 in a pregnant mother are associated with schizophrenia in her child and high levels in adults with schizophrenia reduces the effectiveness of antipsychotic medications. IL-8 dysregulation is also involved in cystic fibrosis, where it recruits an excessive number of white blood cells to the lungs, resulting in tissue damage.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a growth factor that mediates growth and cell division. It is a critical regulator of early embryonic development, where it drives the growth of the mesenchyme and later tissue remodeling and morphogenesis. In adults, PDGF promotes blood vessel formation and maintenance, wound healing, survival and regeneration of neurons, and induces of mitosis in connective tissue cells. In the immune system it stimulates neutrophil phagocytosis and inhibits natural killer cell activity. PDGF is chemotactic for fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, neutrophils and mononuclear cells. The presence of this chemokine is common at the site of healing in damaged tissue, especially connective tissue, where it stimulates collagen synthesis. Clinically, PDGF is often used to heal ulcers, stimulate recovery following orthopedic surgery, and promote soft tissue healing.
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) is a glycoprotein in the TIMP family of proteins, which regulate the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Metalloproteinases degrade the extracellular matrix. As an inhibitor of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1 minimizes matrix digestion by these enzymes and is most effective at inhibiting MMP1, MMP7, and MMP9. It is produced by a wide range of cell types and likely helps to maintain tissue homeostasis by preventing tissue degradation. It is important for maintaining the extracellular matrix and supporting wound healing. TIMP1 also plays a critical role in pregnancy, facilitating implantation of the egg onto the uterine wall and regulating early transcription in the developing embryo. High levels of TIMP1 are associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients.
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2) is a glycoprotein in the TIMP family of proteins, which regulate the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Metalloproteinases degrade the extracellular matrix. As an inhibitor of metalloproteinases, TIMP2 minimizes matrix digestion by these enzymes and is most effective at inhibiting MMP2. TIMP2 also has the unique ability to repress the proliferation of endothelial cells. It may be critical to tissue homeostasis, preventing the overgrowth of certain cell types during blood vessel formation and limiting MMP2 activity in the extracellular matrix of tissues during remodeling. TIMP2 is critical to normal hippocampal behavior and supports cognitive function. It may suppress certain cancers by preventing cell proliferation during angiogenesis.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a versatile cytokine that plays a central role in inflammation, immune system development, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. TNFα is an important endogenous pyrogen, its release quickly induces fever. It also causes apoptotic cell death, cachexia, inflammation, and has the ability to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication. It is chemoattractive to many immune cells, particularly neutrophils. Cell surface TNFα can induce the lysis of neighboring tumor cells and virus infected cells and has the ability to generate its own downstream cell signaling. It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it is produced in low levels by a wide variety of immune, epithelial, endothelial, and tumor cells such as CD4+ lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. TNFα also plays an important role in metabolism, with the ability to induce insulin resistance and regulate appetite through interactions with the hypothalamus. Dysregulation of TNF production has been implicated in a variety of human diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, cancer, and psoriasis.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a family of growth factors that stimulate the formation of new blood vessels. VEGF is critical for vascular development during embryonic growth and supports angiogenesis for wound repair, supporting exercise, and bypassing blocked vessels in adults. The production of VEGF is stimulated by lack of oxygen in a cell, encouraging the production of blood vessels to supply tissues with oxygen and nutrients. VEGF concentrations raise rapidly following injury to support angiogenesis to repair the wound. Abnormal expression of VEGF is implicated in multiple diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, pulmonary emphysema, protein accumulation in the kidneys, and early-onset pre-eclampsia. Tumors that express VEGF are able to vascularize and grow much larger than those that do not and the factor appears to support metastasis, though the exact mechanism is unknown. High levels of VEGF are associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients.
Each kit contains a 96-well plate, featuring the relevant biomarker panel in each well, and all reagents required to perform testing.
- Detection Mix
- Sample Diluents
- Streptavidin HRP
- Wash Buffer
All Quansys Q-Plex™ Multiplex and Singleplex assays require the use of the Q-View™ software to read and interpret the test results. A fully-functional, free trial version of the software is available to download, install, and use to analyze your first kit(s). At the end of the trial period, a purchased license is required to continue the use of the Q-View software.
Q-Plex™ arrays are developed and optimized to work with Q-View™ imagers. Quansys does not guarantee the results obtained from other imagers and not all imagers are compatible with Quansys Q-Plex arrays.
Role of erythropoietin in the angiogenic activity of bone marrow endothelial cells of MGUS and multiple myeloma patients
Publication: Oncotarget, March 2016
Continuous exposure to non-lethal doses of sodium iodate induces retinal pigment epithelial cell dysfunction
Publication: Sci Rep, November 2016