Human Fractalkine Analyte Overview
Also known as Fractalkine, CX3CL1, Neurotactin
Fractalkine, also known as chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and neurotactin in mice, is a large cytokine protein with a unique structure and functions as both a chemoattractant and an adhesion molecule. It is a type 1 membrane protein which has a chemokine domain attached to a long mucin-like stalk and exists in a soluble form in plasma. The membrane-bound form promotes the adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, while the soluble form attracts T cells, monocytes, and NK cells to an area. It plays a complex role in inflammation and is implicated in the progression of many diseases, including atherosclerosis, RA, HIV infection, cancer. Fractalkine is common in brain tissue, where it is found in the membranes of neurons. It is a critical component of microglial cell migration which commonly express its receptor in their membranes. Fractalkine is upregulated in the hippocampus following spatial learning and may be involved in synaptic scaling.
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