Human TGFβ Analyte Overview
Also known as TGF, Transforming Growth Factor Beta
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a cytokine with numerous functions in the immune system. It is primarily secreted by macrophages in a latent form and activated by cellular signals of inflammation. TGF-β has many roles in the immune system, including enabling the differentiation of T cells, inhibiting B lymphocyte proliferation, stimulating monocytes, reducing macrophage activity, and regulating the cell cycle of local cells. TGF-β is a component of human breastmilk and is believed to support immune system development in infants. Abnormal expression of TGF-β is implicated in cancer when the cell cycle regulation of the cytokine is corrupted. The TGF-β signaling pathways associated with metabolism are often disrupted in obesity and diabetes. Reduced levels of TGF-β are seen in patients with multiple sclerosis. Disruptions in TGF-β signaling pathways are associated with Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and Alzheimer’s disease. Elevated TGF-β is to blame for wrinkle formation, as it decreases subcutaneous fat in aging people.
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